I have found out about the maths in Navigating ship out at sea.
About 4,000 years ago (c. 2000 B.C.E.), The first Western Civilization, the Phoenicians, were known have to developed the art of navigation at sea. Phoenician sailors accomplished navigation by using observations of the sun and stars to determine directions and sophisticated charts. Within the early tools used by ocean navigators are compasses, astrolabes, maps and calipers. In more modern times, the tools have become more electronic and technological. Even though the tools were invented early, it still took hundreds of years before global navigation at sea could be used. Only up to the fifteenth century, essentially coast navigators were mariners. Sailing on the open sea was restricted to regions where there was a wide continental shelf to follow or of predictable winds and currents. Further ventures were made possible by the development of mathematically and scientifically based methods and tools.